the origins of symbolic computing
and the self-modifying, stored-program computer.
intro
NOTES:
(1) EDVAC vs. Turing, ENIGMA p324 (critical)
!! Is IAS machine EDVAC??
(2) IAS instruction set, 20TH, p343
(3) Manchester instruction set, 20TH p436 (only vestiges of ACE, but some vestiges)
(4) ACE instruction set in Programmers Handbook
SOURCES:
COMPUTABLE... [summary in ENIGMA suffices]
ACE Report
EDVAC report [locate]
"Proposed electronic calculator" [from notes; what is this?!]
"Computing machinery and intelligence"
TURING
WEAK ITEMS TO COVER EXPLICITLY:
Why is there lack of symbolic (eg. character) output in ACE-derived machines? (viz turing letter to gandy)
Turing's abandonment of higher-level work
goal
Nearly all computer histories talk about mathematics, speed of math., etc.
Turing was the first to tie theoretical concerns to current technology to make a self-modifying,
stored-program computer in the modern sense. [this part irrespective of lovelace]
Turing was initially the ONLY one to see the overriding importance of symbolic computing; that
mathematical computing is a SUBSET of symbolic computing.
[lovelace may have seen this, and 100 years! earlier; need to read LOVELACE]
presented as PHYSICAL EVIDENCE of actual instruction sets to back up history of ideas
This was implicit in COMPUTABE... as logical transformations on math.
Debunk Goldstine, specifically point out fabrications
Goldstine is clearly unaware of its importance, even in GOLDSTINE.
JvN apparently [RESEARCH!] saw stored-program as a means to the end of fast math. machines
for other projects, eg. Los Alamos. He may have been aware of symbolic computing; discussions
with Turing.
The British B.P. experience set them as the inheritors of Turing's legacy.
background
definition of terms
recontextualization of 'computer'
calculator
computer
stored-program computer
self-modifying stored-program computer
hyper-brief history
mention current assumptions
describe major contemporary projects
chronology
describe camps
neuronal model
JvNs? Turing seems to have adopted.
outcome of cybernetics
argument
[reference or include goals here]
turing made relay calculator, 1936? 1939? TURING
COMPUTABLE... origins are in defining human thought processes (not math)
Emil Post re: physical computation, TURING p17
E&M/Goldstine describing ENIAC as stored-program is disingenious at best, at worst
complete lack of understanding
Turing explicitly describes F.P as "simulation" in ACE Report; need dates, cf. EDVAC.
discuss each machine, chronological order:
ENIAC
ACE (Turing's design)
floating point
was it widely recognized as a 'simulation' of math?
lack of branch instruction (turing gone too far)
Pilot ACE
is IAS machine "EDVAC?"
EDVAC
could not modify instructions until 1947, and for tagged instructions only,
eg. address fields. (1) [Need orig. documents]
importance of symbolic not recognized generally until 60's
exceptions:
SAGE
ARTOC
military
not widespread until 70's
anecdote about Sherman Tabor re: 8-bit machines
lovelace: if she had the clue, it needs to be outlined here
turing: clearly had it first unless lovelace
JvN: seems to have not cared; certainly talked with Turing
Goldstine: clearly without clue
conclusion
summarize
SOURCES